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    Wrapper Classes in Java

    The primitive data types in java are not objects. If we want to use these data types as objects, then we will have to use wrapper classes for each of these primitive data types provided in java.lang package.

    There are many built-in classes, which cannot handle primitive data types as they deal only with objects. One such class is Vector, which is used to store a collection of objects. We cannot use the Vector class to directly store the collection of elements of a primitive data typed. But we can do so by storing the objects of wrapper classes, which correspond to the primitive data types.

    The Java has wrapper class corresponding to each of the primitive data type as shown in the following table:

    Primitive Data Types Wrapper Class
    boolean Boolean
    char Character
    byte Byte
    short Short
    int Integer
    long Long
    float Float
    double Double

    Number class:

    The abstract class Number defines super-class that is implemented by the classes that wrap the numeric type byte, short, int, long, float, and double. Number class has abstract methods that return the value of the object in each of the different number formats. These methods are:

    byte byteValue()

    Returns the value of the specified number as a byte.

    short shortValue()

    Returns the value of the specified number as a short.

    abstract int intValue()

    Returns the value of the specified number as an int.

    abstract long longValue()

    Returns the value of the specified number as a long.

    abstract float floatValue()

    Returns the value of the specified number as a float.

    abstract double doubleValue()

    Returns the value of the specified number as a double.

    Note-

    The values returned by byteValue(), shortValue(), intValue(),longValue(), floatValue() and doubleValue() methods may involve rounding or truncation.

    Example

    The following example demonstrates how rounding and truncation takes place when invoking methods of class Number.

    		class Wrapper
    		{
    		public static void main(String args[ ])
    		{
    		Integer iObj = new Integer(128);
    		System.out.println(iObj.byteValue()); //truncation
    		Long lObj = new Long(123456789123456789L);
    		System.out.println(lObj);
    		System.out.println(lObj.doubleValue());
    		Float fObj = new Float(3.99f);
    		System.out.println(fObj.intValue()); truncation
    		}
    		}
    

    Output

    -128

    123456789123456789

    1.23456789123456784E17

    3

    Converting Primitive Numbers to Objects using Constructors of Wrappers Classes and Converting Numeric Objects back to Primitive Numbers:-

    Example

    The following example demonstrates how primitives can be wrapped in objects and how they can be converted back to primitives.

    		class Convert
    		{
    		public static void main(String args[])
    		{
    		System.out.println(“Converting primitive numbers to objects “ + “using constructors”);
    		byte b = 105;
    		Byte bObj = new Byte(b);
    		System.out.println(bObj); //toString()
    		short s = 2015;
    		Short sObj = new Short(s)
    		System.out.println(sObj);
    		int i=32717;
    		Integer iObj = new Integer(i);
    		System.out.println(iObj);
    		long l = 234543335565675L
    		Long lObj = new Long(l);
    		System.out.println(lObj);
    		float f = 3.1415f;
    		Float fObj = new Float(f);
    		System.out.println(fObj);
    		double d = 3.1415;
    		Double dObj = new Double(d);
    		System.out.println(dObj);
    		System.out.println(“Converting numeric objects to primitive numbers”);
    		byte b1 = bObj.byteValue();
    		short s1 = sObj.shortValue();
    		int i1 = iObj.intValue();
    		long l1 = lObj.longValue();
    		float f1 = fObj.floatValue();
    		double d1 = dObj.doubleValue();
    		System.out.println(b1);
    		System.out.println(s1);
    		System.out.println(i1);
    		System.out.println(l1);
    		System.out.println(f1);
    		System.out.println(d1);
    		}
    		}
    

    Output:

    Converting primitive numbers to objects using constructor

    105

    2015

    32717

    234543335565675

    3.1415

    3.1415

    Converting object to primitive numbers

    105

    2015

    32717

    234543335565675

    3.1415

    3.1415

    Converting Primitive Numbers to Strings using toString() static method of the corresponding Wrapper Class

    Example

    		class ConvertPrimitiveToString
    		{
    		public static void main(String args[ ])
    		{
    		System.out.println(“Converting primitive numbers to String “ +
    		 “using toString() static method of corresponding wrapper class:”);
    		byte b = 105;
    		String str=Byte.toString(b);
    		System.out.println(str);
    		short s=303;
    		str = Short.toString(s);
    		System.out.println(str);
    		int i=100;
    		str = Integer.toString(i);
    		System.out.println(str);
    		long l=454444444444l;
    		str = Long.toString(l);
    		System.out.println(str);
    		float f=3.444f;
    		str=Float.toString(f);
    		System.out.println(str);
    		double d=3.44444;
    		str=Double.toString(d);
    		System.out.println(str);
    		}
    		}
    

    Output

    Converting primitive numbers to String using toString() static method of

    corresponding wrapper class:

    105

    303

    100

    454444444444

    3.444

    3.44444

    Converting Numeric Objects to Strings using toString() method of the corresponding Wrapper Class:-

    Example

    		class ObjectToStringDemo
    		{
    		public static void main(String args[ ])
    		{
    		System.out.println(“Converting object numbers to Strings using” +
    		“toString() method of corresponding wrapper class:”);
    		byte b=103;
    		Byte bObj = new Byte(b);
    		String str=bObj.toString();
    		System.out.println(str);
    		short s=203;
    		Short sObj=new Short(s);
    		str = sObj.toString();
    		System.out.println(str);
    		Integer iObj = new Integer(32000);
    		str = iObj.toString();
    		System.out.println(str);
    		str = new Long(4544444444444l).toString();
    		System.out.println(str);
    		str = new Float(3.1444f).toString();
    		System.out.println(str);
    		str = new Double(4.1444).toString();
    		System.out.println(str);
    		}
    		}
    

    Output:

    Converting object numbers to Strings using toString() method of corresponding

    wrapper class:

    103

    203

    32000

    4544444444444

    3.1444

    4.1444

    Converting String Objects(Numeric Strings) to Numberic Objects using the static valueOf() method of the corresponding Wrapper Class

    Example

    		class StringToNumericObjectDemo
    		{
    		public static void main(String args[])
    		{
    		String str=”30”;
    		String str2=”30.333”;
    		Byte bObj=Byte.valueOf(str);
    		System.out.println(bObj);
    		//Byte bObj1 = new Byte(str2); //NumberFormatException
    		Short sObj = Short.valueOf(str);
    		System.out.println(sObj);
    		Integer iObj=Integer.valueOf(str);
    		System.out.println(iObj);
    		Long lObj=Long.valueOf(“344324232432”);
    		System.out.println(lObj);
    		Float fObj=Float.valueOf(“3.333”);
    		System.out.println(fObj);
    		Double dObj=Double.valueOf(str2);
    		System.out.println(dObj);
    		}
    		}
    

    Output:

    30

    30

    30

    3.44324232432

    3.33

    30.333

    Note:-

    All of the valueOf() methods throw “NumberFormatException” if the string does not contain a parsable number.

    Converting string Objects (Numeric Strings) to Numeric Objects using Constructor of the corresponding Wrapper Class

    Example

    		class StringToNumericObjectDemo1
    		{
    		public static void main(String args[])
    		{
    		String str=new String(“30”);
    		//String str=”30”;
    		String str2=new String(“30.333”);
    		Byte bObj = new Byte(str);
    		System.out.println(bObj);
    		//Byte bObj=new Byte(str2); //NumberFormatException
    		Short sObj=new Short(str);
    		System.out.println(sObj);
    		Integer iObj=new Integer(str);
    		System.out.println(iObj);
    		Long lObj=new Long(str);
    		System.out.println(lObj);
    		Float fObj=new Float(str);
    		System.out.println(fObj);
    		Double dObj=new Double(str);
    		System.out.println(dObj);
    		}
    		}
    

    Output:

    30

    30

    30

    30

    30.333

    30.333

    Note:-

    The Above constructor throw “NumberFormatException” if the string does not contain a parsable number.

    Converting String Objects (Numeric Strings) to Primitive Numbers using parsing methods of the corresponding Wrapper Class

    Example

    		class StringToPrimitiveDemo
    		{
    		public static void main(String args[])
    		{
    		String str = new String(“30”);
    		//String str=”30”;
    		String str2= new String(“30.333”);
    		byte b = Byte.parseByte(str);
    		System.out.println(b);
    		//byte b1=Byte.parseByte(str2); //NumberFormatException
    		short s = Short.parseShort(str);
    		System.out.println(s);
    		int i = Integer.parseInt(str);
    		System.out.println(i);
    		long l = Long.parseLong(str);
    		System.out.println(l);
    		float f = Float.parseFloat(str2);
    		System.out.println(f);
    		double d = Double.parseDouble(str2);
    		System.out.println(d);
    		}
    		}
    

    Output:

    30

    30

    30

    30

    30.333

    30.333

    Note:-

    parseXXXXX() methods throw “NumberFormatException” if the string does not contain a parsable number.

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