SQL Operators

In this SQL tutorial,SQL Operators are defined as a symbol or special reserved keywords used to specify some action that is performed on the given expression which includes several clauses to tell the system how the operators behave. Operators do calculations between the data items or operand and execute the Query result. It provides a condition in SQL statements or also combines multiple conditions and executes them between the operands (filters the results). The operators which are used between the data can come with single or with binary operands. In SQL tutorial, all the operators are specified with the conditional statements along with the WHERE clause of SQL.

Types of SQL Operators

SQL is the foundation of database management systems that deals with a variety of manipulation of data. Therefore, SQL provides some SQL Operators to perform Operations and while evaluating the Expression order of precedence is very important. Following are the various Operators used in SQls.

  1. Arithmetic Operators
  2. Comparison Operators
  3. Logical Operators
  1. Arithmetic Operators

    These operators are used to manipulate mathematical calibrations like addition, multiplication, division, subtraction and other modulus numeric values in the SQL query.

    Syntax:

    Select < expression 1> operator < expression 2>

    1. Addition

      This operator helps in adding values on both sides of the operators.

    2. Subtraction

      This operator implies subtracting values on both sides of the operator (right value from the left).

    3. Multiplication

      This SQL operator does multiplication operation between two operands.

    4. Division

      This operator performs actions by dividing one expression by the other expressions.

    5. Modulus

      This SQL operator returns the remainder of the division process between two operands.

  2. Comparison Operators or Relational Operators

    Being conditional takes two expressions and does the valuable comparison and returns either True or False. It does the operations such as equal to, lesser than, greater than or greater than equal to and other advanced concepts too. This operator joins their hands with the ‘where’ clause to select the particular columns in the records. Here in Below Section, we describe different types of relational operators and few examples on them along with the syntax.

  3. Syntax:

    SELECT column FROM table WHERE condition1 Relational Operator condition2;

    1. Equal to (=)

      This operator checks the value of the two operands is the same or not. If it is equal then it returns true, if not returns false.

    2. Not equal to or Inequality (! =), (< >)

      It verifies whether the two operands’ values are equal or not. If they are not equal then the statement returns True.

    3. Greater than (>)

      It is used in SQL to check for the greater than a value between two operands.

    4. Greater than equal to (> =)

      It is used in SQL to check for the greater than or equal to a value between two operands.

    5. Lesser than (<)

      This operator in SQL is used to check whether a left operand is lesser than the right operand.

    6. Lesser than or Equal to (<=)

      This operator in SQL is used to check whether a left operand is lesser than or equal to the right operand.

  4. Logical Operators

    Logical operations in the SQL which is true or False are performed by the Logical Operators. Different operators used here are listed below:

    • AND
    • OR
    • NOT
    • BETWEEN
    • ANY
    Syntax:

    SELECT col name * | expr [logical operator] [col name | * | expr..] FROM tablename

    WHERE < expr>[ logical operator |

    arithmetic operator | …] < expressions>;

    1. AND Operator

      It gives preference to make use of multiple conditions with the WHERE clause.

    2. OR

      This makes a comparison between the expressions in the statement and returns true if either of the condition is True.

    3. NOT

      This operator takes an argument as a single Boolean and returns true if it is false and vice-versa.

    4. ANY

      A specific value is taken and it is compared with any of the values in the fields.

    5. BETWEEN

      This operator is used when there is a limit range between the values.


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