What is Waterfall model?

The Waterfall Model is an iterative, sequential process consisting of five steps and always follows this process- Requirements Analysis and Specification, Design, Implementation, Unit Testing, Integration and System Testing, Operation and Maintenance. The name Waterfall Model was derived from the diagram representing it which resembles a water cascading down a waterfall.

Winston Royce invented the Waterfall Model in 1970.

  1. Requirements analysis and specification phase: The goal of this phase is to understand precisely what the customer wants and document these requirements in an extensive paper called a Software Requirement Specification (SRS). It describes the “what” of the system, but not the “how.” This document created in this phase typically requires a large detail-oriented vocabulary.

    The requirements analysis and specification phase of software development is dedicated to fulfilling the customer’s needs and figuring out exactly what functionality will be provided. This phase answers the question “What does the system need to do?” without focusing on how it will be done. It is important that both developers and customers work together, with the designer notifying the customer of any features they may find pertinent. The final result is a big document called a Software Requirement Specification, which contains all of this information in a common language

  2. Design Phase: The SDD’s goal is to convert the requirements gathered earlier to structures that are readable by programmers. It also tries to design the structure of the program with a high and detailed level design. This whole process will be documented in an SDD.
  3. Implementation and unit testing: If a design is planned, it will be implemented properly because all the information needed by the developers is in the design.

    Testing code is crucial to guaranteeing its reliability and safety. Testing typically begins with isolated modules, which are then checked for errors by integrating them with the remaining parts of the software.

  4. Integration and System Testing: It is important to test your product thoroughly so the efficiency of both the individual modules and their interactions with each other and the system can be measured. Unit testing determines a module’s role within the system and its effectiveness. This process takes place before interactions with other modules are tested.
  5. Operation and maintenance phase: A successful SaaS company needs to have a maintenance team on hand and available to help their customers once the user is done with installation and activation of the software.

When to use SDLC Waterfall Model?

Why choosing the waterfall model is advantageous in certain circumstances

  • When requirements are consistent and do not change frequently.
  • The project is brief.
  • Everything is in order.
  • Where the technological tools employed are stable and do not change.
  • When skills have been well-prepared and are readily available.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Waterfall model

Advantages of Waterfall model

  • This approach is simple to implement, and it only requires a small amount of resources.
  • The objectives are straightforward and transparent, and they remain constant throughout the project’s development.
  • Every phase’s start and end points are predetermined, making it simple to track progress.
  • Prior to development, the whole product’s delivery date and actual price can be defined.
  • A tight reporting system allows for easy supervision and clarification for the consumer.

Disadvantages of Waterfall model

  • Because the relative risk in this model is greater, it is not ideal for larger, more complicated tasks
  • It also cannot accommodate changes in needs during development.
  • Returning to the phase becomes difficult.
  • Because testing is done at a later stage, it is difficult to detect the obstacles and dangers in the earlier phase, making the risk reduction plan harder to design.


Q1. What is waterfall model?

The waterfall model is a system-development approach that is used to create a sequential and linear system. A system begins with the top level of tasks and eventually moves down to the more basic levels.

Q2. What are the 5 stages of waterfall model?

The waterfall model provides a way to divide the development process into the following five phases: analysis, design, implementation, testing, and operation. Winston Royce created this model based on his requirements.

Q3. What is Agile and waterfall methods?

Agile emphasizes continuous improvement and Waterfall is an incremental process. Waterfall is a linear and sequential process: whereas agile divides the project into phases. Agile helps complete many small projects, while Waterfall focuses on completing one big project.

Q4. Why is waterfall better than Agile?

Agile is a better management method for projects that are highly involved. The constraints of this type of project mean there is less flexibility than with waterfall, as the latter relies on standardized timeframes and strict guidelines.

Q5. What is the difference between Scrum and Waterfall?

The primary difference between Scrum and Waterfall is that Scrum is value-based, with shorter iterations. Waterfall focuses on a schedule, with clearly estimated duration and cost.

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