V-Model- Software Engineering

Here in this Tutorial we will discuss about the V Modelin software Engineering Tutorial. The process of V-Model involves verification phases and validation phases. The two are joined by a coding phase which results in the shape of a V. The tutorial is helpful for beginners and experience professionals.


The Verification and Validation Model (V-Model) is another name for the V-Model. The process is sequentially designed much like waterfall model. Testing can occur in parallel with the corresponding stage of development.


Static analysis is done by reviewing the product without executing it. It’s a process of evaluating the quality of software that has been developed by searching for a relation to previously identified problems.


Validation is the process to classify software after the development process and determine whether it meets expectations. Processing code is used for dynamic research and testing, whereas functional and non-functional aspects are used for validation.

There are the various phases of Verification Phase of V-model:

  1. Business requirement analysis: “In this phase, interactions with the customers help them to understand their needs and expectations.”
  2. System Design: The stage of system engineering is analyzing and interpreting the business. The user requirements document is analyzed.
  3. Architecture Design: A software architecture should be designed to cover all the aspects, such as listed modules and their functionality, interface relationships, dependencies, and other details. The integration testing model is implemented in a certain stage.
  4. Module Design: Divide a module into separate modules while design it. The design specification of every module, involves the use of low design, then is created.
  5. Coding Phase: To start the coding phase, a programming language is chosen based on requirements. The code is optimized with useful guidelines and standards — before it is checked into a repository, the final product is reviewed by many more people to make sure it functions properly.

Phases of Validation Phase of V-model:

  1. Unit Testing: Unit testing helps to eliminate errors and improve code quality, ensuring that the smallest module of code function correctly. Unit tests are often developed with input from coders during the initial design phase, where they serve as a blueprint for the overall application before it can be debugged.
  2. Integration Testing: Integration test plans are developed to verify that groups react with each other and work together during the design phase.
  3. System Testing: Project managers develop test plans to ensure the client’s expectations are met. Systems tests ensures that the new application is working and will meet the publishing company’s needs.
  4. Acceptance Testing: Acceptance testing is through software product in user atmosphere. Acceptance tests reveal compatibility of different systems, which are available in the user atmosphere. It also discovers non-functional problems like load and performance deficiencies in real user environment.

Use V-Model

  • When the need is clear and straightforward.
  • The V-shaped model should be applied for small to medium-sized operations with well-defined and stable goals.
  • The V-shaped model should be used when representative technical resources with critical technical skills are offered.

Advantage of V-Model:

  1. Simple to understanding.
  2. Testing Prior to coding, techniques such as planning and test design are used.
  3. This eliminates a significant amount of time. As a result, the waterfall model has a better probability of succeeding.
  4. Prevents flaws from flowing downhill.
  5. It’s ideal for simple programs with clear requirements.

Disadvantage of V-Model:

  1. Extremely rigid and inflexible.
  2. Unsuitable for a massive project.
  3. No early prototypes of software are generated because application is delivered during the project implementation.
  4. If there are any modifications in the middle, the test documents, as well as the needed documents, must be updated.


Q1. What is V-Model in software engineering?

The V-Model is a model for testing as part of the software development process. It can be used as an extension to the Waterfall model, which includes testing as one of the last steps in the sequential process for development.

Q2. Why it is called V-Model?

The V-shape of the model represents both verification and validation, which can be visualized as joined in one side, with the coding phase on the other.

Q3. What is difference between V-Model and waterfall model?

In the V-Model, the number of defects found in a product is lower because testing occurs concurrently with development. Whereas, in the Waterfall Model, the number of defects found in a product is high because testing occurs after development.

Q4. What is the difference between V-model and V bind?

“v-model” is the two-way binding, for formatting inputs, textarea, and radio buttons. “v-bind” is one-way binding to display data inside a view.

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