Spiral Model

The spiral model is used by software engineers and uses the same development process as iterative development, but also includes risk management. The Waterfall model is to be avoided because they can be expensive projects with large set deadlines.

The spiral model is an efficient way to create, test and perfect products. Every iteration of the process provides a chance to asses the riskiest elements of a product before it’s released. The most notable feature is that prototypes can be built early on, which makes adapting to unexpected risks easier.

Spiral Model Quadrants

The four quadrants in each phase of the Spiral Model are described below.

  1. Determine the objectives and find alternate alternatives: The first step of the requirements gathering process is to identify the customer needs, elaborate on their objectives, and analyze them. From then, solutions are proposed for each of the phases.
  2. Risks must be identified and resolved: The second quadrant is all about evaluating the various possible solutions to find the best one, while thinking through the risks associated with each solution. At the end of this quadrant you have a prototype for the best possible solution.
  3. Create the product’s next edition: The features created in the third quadrant can be tested and applied to the next version of the software.
  4. Evaluate and prepare for next Phase.: The customer evaluates the software and then planning for future phases begins.

The spiral model supports any mixture of project approaches, including specification-oriented, prototype-oriented, simulation-oriented, or other types. The element that binds all stages together is the post-cycle review which will include all products developed in a particular cycle, as well as plans for the next. The spiral model can also be applied to enhancement projects.

Use of Spiral Model

  • It is use for Release Management.
  • Projects that are going to be subject to much change.
  • Financial feasibility of long term projects has been reduced.
  • Projection of project risk.
  • Projects that have cost and risk analysis necessary.
  • Some projects that would benefit from the creation of a prototype.
  • Challenges with the Requirements.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Spiral Model


Following are the advantages of the spiral model:

  • Flexibility –Changes to the requirements can be easily included in our development.
  • Risk handling –The risk management process goes hand-in-hand with the iterative development process. The spiral model decreases risk by analyzing and handling risks in every phase, which improves security and helps avoid attacks.
  • Customer satisfaction –If you are designing software for a customer, they will be able to see and evaluate their product in every stage. They will have the chance to voice dissatisfactions or make changes before the product is fully built. This saves time and money for the development team.


Following are the disadvantages of the spiral model:

  • Costly-The spiral model is not always the best choice for small projects due to high cost.
  • Dependency on risk management –Effective risk handling is necessary for the project to succeed. Experts with knowledge of risk assessment should be involved in the project to do this.
  • Complicated –Unlike in other SDLCs, the spiral model is complex and requires protocols to be followed closely. Furthermore, there is more documentation as the spiral model has intermediate phases.
  • Time management challenges-It is hard to plan for your timeline when you are unsure of how many phases the project will need. This makes it easy to go over budget or stay behind on your schedule.


Q1. Why is spiral model used in software engineering?

The Spiral Model is the best for when you don’t want to spend any cost and want to iterate quickly. It aligns with how products normally grow, from knowing just a little in the beginning, so there’s less risk of doing anything wrong. This model is also best when there’s a budget constraint or limiting risk.

Q2. Where is spiral model used?

Spiral Model helps to adopt software development elements of multiple process models for the software project based on unique risk patterns. The design goal at each phase of the software development process- Spiral Model assumes a high risk- is revisited in order to test its success and save time by reducing the need to fix mistakes later on.

Q3. What is the difference between waterfall and spiral model?

The waterfall method is a linear model that follows sequential stages, whereas the spiral model is more flexible and does not need to follow a straight course.

Q4. Is Scrum a spiral?

The traditional software development methodology, called Spiral process model, is losing popularity because it is slow and doesn’t optimize the delivery time. The agile model of development, scrum, is becoming ever more popular among companies.

Q5. What is difference between Agile and Waterfall?

Agile encourages team members to work on different phases of the project simultaneously, while Waterfall only allows the team to start working on a new phase when all other phases are completed.

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