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    Selenium Basics

    Selenium is a powerful tool that manages web browsers by programs and automates browsers. It runs on all popular Operating System browsers, and its scripts are written in different languages, such as Python, Java, C#, Java etc.


    Selenium is a versatile program-based web browser management tool. For all browsers, it runs on all big OSs and the scripts are written in different languages, Python, C#. We’re going to deal with Python. There are four key components of selenium: Selenium IDE, Selenium RC, Selenium Web engine, Selenium GRID.

    Selenium IDE

    The main instrument in the Selenium Suite is the Selenium IDE. For Selenium testing, it is a full integrated production environment. It is introduced as a Chrome Plugin and as a Firefox Add-On. It allows for practical checks to be registered, edited and debugged. It was once named the Selenium Recorder. Shinya Kasatani originally developed Selenium-IDE and donated it to the Selenium project in 2006. Selenium IDE was little-maintained previously. In 2018, Selenium IDE started being actively managed.

    Scripts can be manually registered and modified automatically, giving support for autocompletion and the ability to pass commands around quickly. Scripts are written in Selenian, Selenium’s special test scripting language. Selenese offers commands to execute browser actions and to extract data from the resulting pages.


    Selenium GRID

    Selenium Grid is a server for experiments to use instances of a web browser operating on remote computers. One node, with Selenium Grid, serves as the hub. To gain access to browser instances, the tests touch the centre. The centre maintains a list of servers providing access to instances of a browser and requires experiments to use those instances. Selenium Grid helps several computers to perform parallel experiments and to centrally control various browser versions and browser configurations. The ability to run tests on remote browser instances is helpful in distributing the test load over several computers and performing tests on various devices or operating systems running browsers. This is especially helpful in situations where not all browsers will run on the same platform to be used for testing.

    Selenium(RC) Remote Control

    Selenium Remote Control is a server that accepts browser commands via HTTP and is written in Java. RC makes it easy to write automated tests in any programming language for a web application, which helps Selenium to be further implemented with current unit test systems. The Selenium project currently offers client drivers for PHP, Python, Ruby to make writing tests simpler. It is also possible to use the Java driver using JavaScript. To start the html test case, an instance of selenium RC server is required, which means that the port should be different for each parallel run. However, only one Selenium RC instance needs to run continuously for Java and PHP test file.

    Selenium Web Driver

    The successor to Selenium RC is Selenium WebDriver. Selenium WebDriver accepts and transfers commands to a server. This is achieved by a browser-specific browser driver that sends commands and retrieves results to a browser. For most browser drivers, there is also a HtmlUnit browser driver which simulates a search engine using the headless HtmlUnit browser to start and open a browser application directly. Selenium WebDriver does not require a special server in order to run tests. The WebDriver, instead, begins a browser instance directly and manages it. With WebDriver, however, Selenium Grid can be used to run experiments on remote devices. Instead of browser-based JavaScript instructions, WebDriver uses native operating system level features where possible to drive the browser. This bypasses concerns with minor differences, including security limitations, between native and JavaScript commands.

    Features of Selenium Python

    • Easier to understand and implement:

      Selenium commands are listed in terms of multiple classes, making it easy to recognize and execute them.

    • Open Source and Portable:

      Selenium is a Web testing application that is open source and scalable.

    • Lesser resources required:

      Compared to its rivals like UFT, RFT, etc., Selenium needs fewer energy.

    • Reduce test execution time:

      Selenium supports the execution of parallel tests, which decreases the time needed to perform parallel tests.

    • Parallel Test Execution:

      It also encourages the execution of concurrent experiments, which decreases time and improves test performance.


    • Maintenance and Scalability:

      Selenium is a maintenance-heavy structure and it is difficult to scale as one grows.

    • No support for REST and SOAP Platforms:

      On web resources like SOAP or REST, we can’t run automation tests using Selenium.

    • Image Testing:

      Testing should not be carried out on photos. For image testing, one needs to combine Selenium with Sikuli.

    • No Reporting capability:

      Selenium does not have any inbuilt self regulation, for test reports one has to rely on plug-ins such as JUnit and TestNG.

    • No support for desktop applications:

      For desktop software, Selenium does not allow research.

    • Expertise:

      Selenium wants the team’s experience and management tools.


    In order to check that it functions as intended, Selenium WebDriver is used to simplify web application testing. Most browsers, such as Firefox, Chrome, IE, and Safari, support it.

    However, by using the Selenium WebDriver, we can simplify checking only for web applications.

    • Less burden and stress for testers:

      As described above, the amount of time required for evaluating repeated test scenarios on and and every new build is virtually reduced to nothing. The tester’s stress is thus minimized.

    • Open Source and Portable:

      Selenium is a Web testing application that is open source and scalable.

    • Cost reduction for the Business Clients:

      The organization has to pay a salary to the testers, which is avoided by using the automation testing tool. Not only does technology save time, but the enterprise still benefits from cost advantages.

    • Reduce test execution time:

      Selenium supports the execution of parallel tests, which decreases the time needed to perform parallel tests.

    • Increased test coverage:

      Testing time is shortened with the use of Selenium, meaning the tester can perform further testing on other test scenarios at the same time.




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