#### Python Strings

Python string is the set of the characters surrounded by individual quotes, double quotes, or triple quotes. The system does not learn the characters; internally, it stores manipulated character as the combination of the 0’s and 1’s.

In this tutorial, we understand that various Python in-built mathematical, random number, trigonometric functions and their use on numbers and inbuilt string methods.

##### Mathematical functions
Function Description
abs(x) This function decides the absolute cost of x, which is the (positive) distance among x and zero.
ceil(x) This function determines the ceiling of x, which is the smallest integer not less than x.
cmp(x, y) This function returns values as -1, 0 and 1. It returns-1 if x < y, 0 if x == y, or 1 if x > y.
exp(x) This function determines the exponential of x: ex.
fabs(x) This function determines the absolute value of x.
floor(x) This function decides the floor of x, which is the biggest integer not higher than x.
log(x) This function determines the natural logarithm of x, for x> 0.
log10(x) This function determines the base-10 logarithm of x for x>0.
max (x1, x2,..) This function decides the largest of its arguments, which is the value nearest to positive infinity.
min (x1, x2,..) This function decides the smallest of its arguments, which is the value nearest to negative infinity.
modf(x) This function determines the fractional and integer method of x in a two-element tuple. Both parts have a similar sign as x. The integer part is replaced as a float by the function.
pow(x, y) This function determines the value of x**y.
round(x [,n]) In this function, x rounded to n digits from the decimal point.
sqrt(x) This function determines the square root of x for x > 0.
##### Random Number functions
Function Description
choice(seq) This function restore a random element from a list, tuple, or string.
randrange ([start,] stop [,step]) This function returns the randomly chosen element from range (start, stop, step).
random() This function returns a random float r, such that 0 is less than or equal to r and r is less than 1
seed([x]) This function sets the integer beginning value used in generating random numbers. It can call this function before calling any other random module function.
shuffle(lst) This function can randomize the elements of a list in place. It returns Nothing.
uniform(x, y) This function returns a random float r, such that x is less than or equal to r and r is less than y.
##### Trigonometric functions
Function Description
acos(x) This Python in-built trigonometric function returns the arc cosine of x, in radians.
asin(x) This Python in-built trigonometric function returns the arc sine of x, in radians.
atan(x) This Python in-built trigonometric function returns the arc tangent of x, in radians.
atan2(y, x) This Python in-built trigonometric function returns atan(y / x), in radians.
cos(x) This Python in-built trigonometric function returns the cosine of x radians.
hypot(x, y) This Python in-built trigonometric function returns the Euclidean norm, sqrt(x*x + y*y).
sin(x) This Python in-built trigonometric function returns the sine of x radians.
tan(x) This Python in-built trigonometric function returns the tangent of x radians.
degrees(x) This Python in-built trigonometric function converts angle x from radians to degrees.
radians(x) This Python in-built trigonometric function converts angle x from degrees to radians.
##### Mathematical Constants
Constants Descriptions
Pi The mathematical constant pi.
E The mathematical constant e.
##### Python in-built String Methods
Methods Descriptions
capitalize() This Python in-built function is for String which makes the first letter of the string in uppercase.
center(width, fillchar) This Python in-built function for String returns a space-padded string with the original string centred to a total of width columns.
count(str, beg= 0,end=len(string)) This Python in-built function for String counts how many times str occurs in the string or a substring of string if beginning index beg and ending index end are given.
decode(encoding=‘UTF8’,errors=‘strict’) This Python in-built function for String decodes the string using the codec registered for encoding. Encoding defaults to the default string encoding.
encode(encoding=‘UTF8’,errors=‘strict’) This Python in-built function for String replace encoded string version of string; on error, default is to raise a ValueError unless bugs are supported with ‘ignore’ or ‘replace’.
endswith(suffix, beg=0, end=len(string)) This Python in-built function for String determines if a string or a substring of string (if beginning index beg and ending index end are given) ends with a suffix; returns true if so and false.
expandtabs(tabsize=8) This Python in-built function for String expands tabs in the string to various spaces; defaults to 8 spaces per tab if tabsize not given.
find(str, beg=0 end=len(string)) This Python in-built function for String determines if str occurs in the string or a substring of string if beginning index beg and ending index end are provided returns index if found and -1.
index(str, beg=0, end=len(string)) This Python in-built function for String is the same as find() but raises an exception if str not found.
isalnum() This Python in-built function for String returns true if the string has minimum one character and all characters are alphanumeric and false otherwise.
isalpha() This Python in-built function for String returns true if the string has minimum one character and all characters are alphabetic and false otherwise.
isdigit() This Python in-built function for String returns true if the string contains only digits and false.
islower() This Python in-built function for String returns true if the string has at least one cased character and all cased features are in lowercase and false.
isnumeric() This Python in-built function for String returns true if a Unicode string contains only numeric characters and false otherwise.
isspace() This Python in-built function for String returns true if the string contains only whitespace characters and false otherwise.
istitle() This Python in-built function for String returns true if the string is appropriately “titlecased” and false otherwise.
isupper() This Python in-built function for String returns true if the string has minimum one cased character and all cased features are in uppercase and false.
join(seq) This Python in-built function for String merges (concatenates) the string representations of elements in sequence seq into a string, with separator string.
len(string) This Python in-built function for String returns the length of the string.
ljust(width[, fillchar]) This Python in-built function for String returns a space-padded string with the original string left-justified to a total of width columns.
lower() This Python in-built function for String converts all uppercase letters in a string to lowercase.
lstrip() This Python in-built function for String removes all leading whitespace in string.
maketrans() This Python in-built function for String returns a translation table to be used in translate function.
max(str) This Python in-built function for String returns the max alphabetical character from the string str.
min(str) This Python in-built function for String returns the min alphabetical character from the string str.
replace(old, new [, max]) This Python in-built function for String would replace all occurrences of old in the string with new or at most max appearance if max gave.
rfind(str, beg=0,end=len(string)) This Python in-built function for String is the same as find () but search backwards in the string.
rindex( str, beg=0, end=len(string)) This Python in-built function for String is the same as an index () but search backwards in the string.
rjust(width,[, fillchar]) This Python in-built function for String returns a space-padded string with the original string right-justified to a total of width columns.
rstrip() This Python in-built function for String removes all trailing whitespace of string.
split(str=””, num=string.count(str)) This Python in-built function for String splits string according to delimiter str (space if not provided) and returns a list of substrings; divided into at most num substrings if given.
splitlines( num=string.count(‘\n’)) This Python in-built function for String splits a string at all (or num) NEWLINEs and restore a list of every line with NEWLINEs removed.
strip([chars]) This Python in-built function for String performs both lstrip() and rstrip() on the string.
swapcase() This Python in-built function for String inverts case for all letters in a string.
translate(table, deletechars=””) This Python in-built function for String translates string according to translation table str(256 chars), removing those in the del string.
upper() This Python in-built function for String converts lowercase letters in a string to uppercase.
zfill (width) This Python in-built function for String returns initial string leftpadded with zeros to a total of width characters; intended for numbers, zfill () retains few sign provided (less one zero).
isdecimal() This Python in-built function for String returns true if a Unicode string contains only decimal characters and false otherwise.

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