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    Operators in Java

    The operator set in Java is extremely rich. Broadly, the operators available in Java are divided in the following categories.

    • Relational Operators
    • Arithmetic Operators
    • Logical Operators
    • Bitwise Operators
    • Misc Operators
    • Assignment Operators

    The Relational Operator

    Java also supports several relational operators. The list of relational operators that are supported by Java are given below.

    Operation Operator Description
    Equal To == Compares the value of two variables for equality
    Not Equal To != Compares the value of two variables for inequality
    Greater Than > Checks if one value is greater than the other value
    Lesser Than < Checks if one value is lesser than the other value
    Greater Than Or Equal To >= Checks if one value is greater than or equal to the other value
    Lesser Than Or Equal To <= Checks if one value is lesser than or equal to the other value

    The Arithmetic Operator

    Operations in Java are used in essentially the same manner as in algebra. They are used with variables for performing arithmetic operations. Here is a list of arithmetic operators available in Java.

    Operation Operator Description
    Addition + Add the values of two variables
    Subtraction Subtract the values of two variables
    Multiplication * Multiplies the values of two variables
    Division / Divides the values of two variables
    Modulus % The resultant value is the remainder of division
    Increment ++ Increases the value by 1
    Decrement Decreases the value by 1

    The Logical Operators

    Logical operators are an integral part of any operator set. The logical operators supported by Java are listed in the table below.

    Operation Operator Description
    Logical AND && Returns True if both the conditions mentioned are true
    Logical OR || Returns True if one or both the conditions mentioned are true
    Logical NOT ! Returns True if the condition mentioned is False

    The Bitwise Operators

    The bitwise operators available in Java can be easily applied to a number of data types. These data types include byte, short, long, int and char. Typically, any bitwise operator performs the concerned operation bit-wise. For instance, if you consider the example of an integer x, which has the value 60. Therefore, the binary equivalent of x is 00111100. Consider another variable y, with the value 13 or 00001101. If we perform the bitwise operation & on these two numbers, then you will get the following result:

    x&y = 0000 1100

    The table shown below shows a list of bitwise operators that are available in Java.

    Operation Operator Description
    BINARY AND & Perform the AND Operation
    BINARY OR | Perform the OR Operation
    BINARY XOR ^ Perform the XOR Operation
    ONE’S COMPLEMENT ~ Perform the complementation operation on a unary variable
    BINARY LEFT SHIFT << Perform the left shifting of bits
    BINARY RIGHT SHIFT >> Perform the right shifting of bits

    Misc Operators

    In addition to the above mentioned, there are several other operators, which are supported by Java.

    Conditional Operator (? :):

    The conditional operator is a ternary operator that contains three operands. Essentially, this operator is used for the evaluation of Boolean expressions. The operator tests the first operand or condition and if the condition is true, then the second value is assigned to the variable. However, if the condition is false, the third operand is assigned to the variable.

    The syntax of this operator is as follows:

    variable a = (< condition>) ? valueiftrue : valueiffalse

    Sample implementation:

    public class myTest {

    public static void main(String args[]){

    int x, y;

    x = 5;

    y = (x == 5) ? 15: 40;

    System.out.println( “y = ” + y );

    y = (x == 34) ? 60: 95;

    System.out.println( “x = ” + y );

    }

    }

    The compilation and execution of this code shall give the following result:

    Output

    y= 15

    y= 95

    instance of operator

    Only object reference variables can be used with this operator. The objective of this operator is to check is an object is an instance of an exiting class.

    The syntax of this operator is as follows:

    (< object reference variable>) instanceof(< interface/class>)

    Sample implementation of this operator and its purpose of use is given below:

    public class myTest {

    public static void main(String args[]){

    int x = 4;

    boolean resultant = x instanceof int;

    System.out.println( resultant );

    }

    }

    The output of this code shall be true. This operator can also be used in comparison. A sample implementation of this is given below:

    class Animal {}

    public class Monkey extends Animal {

    public static void main(String args[]){

    Animal newa = new Monkey();

    boolean resultant = newa instanceof Monkey;

    System.out.println( resultant );

    }

    }

    The output for this code will also be true.

    The Assignment Operator

    There are following assignment operators supported by Java language:

    Operation Operator Description
    Simple assignment operator = Assigns a value on the right to the variable in the left
    Add – assignment operator += Adds the value on the right to the value of the variable on the left and assigns the resultant to the variable on the left
    Subtract – assignment operator -= Subtracts the value on the right to the value of the variable on the left and assigns the resultant to the variable on the left
    Multiply – assignment operator *= Multiplies the value on the right to the value of the variable on the left and assigns the resultant to the variable on the left
    Divide – assignment operator /= Divides the value on the right to the value of the variable on the left and assigns the resultant to the variable on the left
    Modulus -assignment operator %= It takes the modulus of the LHS and RHS and assigns the resultant to the variable on the left
    Left shift – assignment operator <<= It takes the left shift of the LHS and RHS and assigns the resultant to the variable on the left
    Right shift – assignment operator >>= It takes the right shift of the LHS and RHS and assigns the resultant to the variable on the left
    Bitwise – assignment operator &= It takes the bitwise AND of the LHS and RHS and assigns the resultant to the variable on the left
    bitwise exclusive OR – assignment operator ^= It takes the bitwise XOR of the LHS and RHS and assigns the resultant to the variable on the left
    bitwise inclusive OR – assignment operator |= It takes the bitwise OR of the LHS and RHS and assigns the resultant to the variable on the left

    Precedence of Java Operator

    More often than not, operators are used in combinations in expressions. However, you must have also realized that it becomes difficult to predict the order in which operations will take place during execution. The operator precedence table for Java shall help you predict operator operations in an expression deduction. For instance, if you are performing addition and multiplication in the same expression, then multiplication takes place prior to addition. The following table illustrates the order and hierarchy of operators in Java. The associativity for all the operators is left to right.

    Operator Category
    () [] . (dot operator) Postfix
    ++ – – ! ~ Unary
    * / % Multiplicative
    + – Additive
    >> >>> << Shift
    > >= < <= Relational
    == != Equality
    & Bitwise AND
    | Bitwise OR
    ^ Bitwise XOR
    && Logical AND
    || Logical OR
    ?: Conditional
    = += -= *= /= %= >>= <<= &= ^= |= Assignment
    , Comma

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