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    IOT Architecture

    IoT architecture consists of different layers of technologies supporting IoT. It serves to illustrate how various technologies relate to each other and to communicate the scalability, modularity and configuration of IoT deployments in different scenarios.

    The Functionality of each layer has described:

    Smart device / Sensor layer

    The lowest layer has made up of smart objects integrated with sensors. The sensors enable the interconnection of the physical and digital worlds allowing real-time information to be collected and processed. There are various types of sensors for different purposes. The sensors can take measurements such as temperature, air quality, speed, humidity, pressure, flow, movement and electricity etc.

    In some cases, they may also have a degree of memory, enabling them to record a certain number of measurements. A sensor can measure the physical property and convert it into a signal that can be understood by an instrument. Sensors are grouped according to their unique purpose such as environmental sensors, body sensors, home appliance sensors and vehicle telematics sensors, etc. Most sensors require connectivity to the sensor gateways. It can be in the form of a Local Area Network (LAN) such as Ethernet and Wi-Fi connections or Personal Area Network (PAN) such as ZigBee, Bluetooth and Ultra-Wideband (UWB). For sensors that do not require connectivity to sensor aggregators, their connectivity to backend servers/applications can be provided using Wide Area Network (WAN) such as GSM, GPRS and LTE.

    Sensors that use low power and low data rate connectivity, they typically form networks commonly known as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). WSNs are gaining popularity as they can accommodate far more sensor nodes while retaining adequate battery life and covering large areas.

    Gateways and Networks

    These tiny sensors will produce a massive volume of data, and this requires a robust and high performance wired or wireless network infrastructure as a transport medium. Current networks, often tied with very different protocols, have been used to support machine-to-machine (M2M) structures and their applications. With demand needed to serve a broader range of IoT services and applications such as high-speed transactional services, context-aware applications, etc. Multiple networks with various technologies and access protocols are needed to work with each other in a heterogeneous configuration. These networks can be in the form of a private, public or hybrid models and are built to support the communication requirements for latency, bandwidth or security. Various gateways like microcontroller, microprocessor and gateway networks like WI-FI, GSM, GPRS.

    Management Service layer

    The management service renders the processing of information possible through analytics, security controls, process modelling and management of devices.

    One of the essential features of the management service layer is the business and process rule engines. IoT brings connection and interaction of objects and systems together providing information in the form of events or contextual data such as the temperature of goods, current location and traffic data. Some of these events require filtering or routing to post-processing systems such as capturing of periodic sensory data. In contrast, others require a response to immediate situations such as reacting to emergencies on patient’s health conditions. The rule engines support the formulation of decision logic and trigger interactive and automated processes to enable a more responsive IoT system.

    In the area of analytics, various analytics tools are used to extract relevant information from a massive amount of raw data and to process at a much faster rate. Analytics such as in-memory analytics allows large volumes of data to be cached in random access memory (RAM) rather than stored in physical disks. In-memory analytics reduces data query time and augments the speed of decision making. Streaming analytics is another form of analytics where analysis of data, considered as data-in-motion, is required to be carried out in real-time so that decisions can be made in a matter of seconds.

    Data management is the ability to manage data information flow. With data management in the management service layer, information can be access, integrated and controlled. Higher layer applications can be a shield from the need to process unnecessary data and reduce the risk of privacy disclosure of the data source. Data filtering techniques such as data irreversible, data integration and data synchronization, are used to hide the details of the information while providing only essential information that is usable for the relevant applications. With the use of data abstraction, information can be extracted to provide a standard business view of data to gain greater agility and reuse across domains.

    Security must be enforced across the whole dimension of the IoT architecture right from the smart object layer to the application layer. Protection of the system prevents system hacking and compromises by unauthorized personnel, thus reducing the possibility of risks.

    Application Layer

    The IoT application covers “smart” environments/spaces in domains such as Transportation, Building, City, Lifestyle, Retail, Agriculture, Factory, Supply chain, Emergency, Healthcare, User interaction, Culture and Tourism, Environment and Energy.

    IOT Technologies

    Internet of things (IoT) is a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies.

    With the Internet of Things, communication is extending via the Internet to all the things that surround us. The Internet of Things is much more than a machine to machine communication,

    wireless sensor networks, sensor networks, 2G/3G/4G, GSM, GPRS, RFID, WI-FI, GPS, microcontroller, microprocessor etc. These are considered as being the enabling technologies that make “Internet of Things” applications possible.

    Enabling technologies for the Internet of Things are considered in [A]. They can be grouped into three categories: (A) technologies that will allow “things” to acquire contextual information, (B) technologies that enable “things” to process contextual information, and (C) technologies to improve security and privacy. The first two categories can be jointly understood as functional building blocks required building “intelligence” into “things”, which are indeed the features that differentiate the IoT from the usual Internet. The third category is not a function but rather a de facto requirement, without which the penetration of the IoT would be severely reduced. [B]

    The Internet of Things is not a single technology, but it is a mixture of different hardware & software technology. The Internet of Things provides solutions based on the integration of information technology, which refers to hardware and software used to store, retrieve, and process data and communications technology which includes electronic systems used for communication between individuals or groups.

    There is a heterogeneous mix of communication technologies, which need to be adapted to address the needs of IoT applications such as energy efficiency, speed, security, and reliability. In this context, the level of diversity is a scale to a number manageable connectivity technologies that address the needs of the IoT applications, are adopted by the market, they have already proved to be serviceable, supported by a strong technology alliance. Examples of standards in these categories include wired and wireless technologies like Ethernet, WI-FI, Bluetooth, ZigBee, GSM, and GPRS.

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