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    Features of IoT

    Several features are using in IoT, but the most important features which it works are connectivity, analyzing, integrating, and active management.

    Connectivity

    Connectivity enables network accessibility and compatibility. Accessibility is getting on a network while compatibility provides the standard ability to consume and produce data.

    Interconnectivity

    About the IoT, It can be interconnected with the global information and communication infrastructure.

    Analyzing

    After connecting it’s time to analyzing the data collected and use that data to frame useful business intelligence.

    Integrating

    After analyzing, it uses various models to improve the user experience as well.

    Intelligence

    Intelligence is sensing capabilities in IoT devices, and intelligence is gathered from big data analytics (also AI).

    Safety

    Safety is a significant concern for both creator and recipients of IoT technology. This includes the security of our data and the safety of our physical well-being. Securing the endpoints, the networks, and the data moving across all of it means creating a security paradigm that will scale.

    IoT Security Challenges

    We will discuss IoT Security Risks and challenges.

    There are three categories of IoT risks include:

    1. Risks that are typical in any Internet system.
    2. Risks that are specific to IOT devices.
    3. Safety to ensure no harm is caused by misusing actuators, for instance.

    Traditional security practices such as locking down open ports on devices belong to the first category (for example, a fridge connected to the Internet to send alerts about the product inventory and temperature may use an unsecured SMTP server and can be compromised by a botnet).

    The second category includes issues related explicitly to IoT hardware, and protection device may have its secure information compromised. For example, some IoT devices are too small to support proper asymmetric encryption.

    Furthermore, any device that can connect to the Internet has an embedded operating system deployed in its firmware. Many of these embedded operating systems are not designed with security as their primary consideration.
    There are many security challenges to overcome like to make IoT services available at low cost with a large number of devices communicating securely to each other. There are many security challenges to overcome. We will briefly review some main challenges.

    Scalability-Managing a large number of IoT nodes requires scalable security solutions.
    Connectivity-In IoT communications, connecting various devices of different capabilities in a secure manner is another challenge.
    End-to-End Security End-to-end security measures between IoT devices and Internet hosts are equally important.
    Authentication and Trust-Proper identification and authentication capabilities and their orchestration within a complex IoT environment are not yet mature. It prevents the establishment of trust relationships between IoT components, which is a prerequisite for IoT applications requiring ad-hoc connectivity between IoT components, such as Smart City scenarios. Trust management for IoT is needed to ensure that data analytics engines are fed with valid data. Without authentication, it is not possible to ensure that the data flow produced by an entity contains what it is supposed to prevent.
    Identity Management- Identity management is an issue as poor security practices are often implemented. For example, the use of clear text/Base64 encoded IDs/passwords with devices and machine-to-machine (M2M) is a common mistake. This should be replaced with managed tokens such as JSON Web Tokens (JWT) used by OAuth/OAuth2 authentication and authorization framework (the Open Authorization).
    Attack-Resistant Security Solutions-Diversity in IoT devices results in a need for attack-resistant and lightweight security solutions. As IoT devices have limited compute resources, they are vulnerable to resource enervation attacks.
    Future Challenges for IoTThere are vital challenges and indication today that need to be addressed before mass adoption of IoT can occur.

    – Privacy and Security

    – Cost versus Usability

    – Interoperability

    – Data Management

    – Device Level Energy issues

    Privacy and Security

    As the IoT becomes a vital element of the Future Internet and the usage of the Internet of Things for large-scale, partially mission-critical systems create the need to address trust and security functions adequately.

    New challenges identified for privacy, trust and reliability are:

    • Providing confidence and quality-of-information in shared information models to enable re-use across many applications.
    • Providing a secure exchange of data between IoT devices and consumers of their information.
    • Providing protection mechanisms for vulnerable devices.
    Cost versus Usability

    IoT uses technology to connect physical objects to the Internet. For IoT adoption to grow, the cost of components that are needed to support capabilities such as sensing, tracking and control mechanisms need to be relatively inexpensive in the coming years.

    Interoperability

    In the traditional Internet, interoperability is the essential core value; the first requirement of Internet connectivity is that “connected” systems be able to “talk the same language” of protocols and encodings. Different industries today use different standards to support their applications.

    With numerous sources of data and heterogeneous devices, the use of standard interfaces between these diverse entities becomes essential. This is especially so for applications that support cross-organizational and various system boundaries. Thus the IoT systems need to handle a high degree of interoperability.

    Data Management

    Data management is a crucial aspect of the Internet of Things. When considering a world of objects interconnected and constantly exchanging all types of information, the volume of the generated data and the processes involved in the handling of those data become critical.

    Device Level Energy issues

    One of the critical challenges in IoT is how to interconnect “things” in an interoperable way while taking into account the energy constraints, knowing that communication is the most energy-consuming task on devices.

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