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    Communication Protocol

    In IoT communication protocol, It can be considered as a gathering of different networks, including mobile networks, WLANs, WSN, and Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET).

    Logical connectivity is a critical requirement for IoT. Network-communication speed, reliability, and connection durability will impact the overall IoT experience. Development of high-speed mobile networks like 5G, and the higher availability of local and urban network communication protocols such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and WiMax, creating an interconnected network of objects seems suitable, however, dealing with different communication protocols that link these environments is still challenging.

    IoT Data Link Layer

    IoT Data Link Layer provides service to the network layer. There are many protocols and standard technologies stated by various organizations for data link protocols.

    Bluetooth

    It is a short-range wireless communication network. Mostly it is unified in smartphone and mobile devices. It works within 2.4 ISM frequency with data rate up to 3Mbps.

    Network Layer

    The network layer is based on the device’s specification, communication and protocols range.

    Followings are commonly using communication protocols, and standards are listed below:

    RFID (e.g., ISO 18000 series that comes with five classes and two generations, and covers both active and passive RFID tags).

    IEEE 802.11 (WLAN), IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee), Near Field Communication (NFC), IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth)

    Low-power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) standards by IEFT.

    M2M protocols, such as MQTT and CoAP.

    IP layer technologies, such as IPV4, IPV6, etc.

    Transport and Application Layer

    Segmentation and coherency level, which are the result of pushes from individual companies to maximize their market share and revenue, has made development IoT applications cumbersome. Universal applications that require one-time coding and can be executed on multiple devices are the most efficient.

    Protocols in IoT can be classified into three categories:

    General-purpose protocols.

    Lightweight protocols.

    Device or Vendor-specific protocols.

    General-purpose protocols

    In General-purpose protocols like IP and SNMP that have been around for many years and are vastly used to manage, monitor, configure network devices, and establish communication links.

    Lightweight protocols

    Lightweight protocols such as CoAP that have been developed to meet the requirement of constrained devices with slight hardware and limited resources.

    Device or Vendor-specific protocols

    Device or Vendor-specific protocols usually require a particular build environment and toolset.

    In communication Protocol selection of right protocols at the development, a phase can be challenging and complex. The select protocol which gives future support, accessible to implementation, and has universal accessibility.

    M2M communication target to enable logical integration of physical and virtual objects into larger and geographically distributed enterprises by eliminating the need for human interference. To achieve this goal, the use of different communication layers like physical, transport, presentation, application).

    IoT Platform

    IoT platform is an essential part of any IoT products. It is a multi-layer technology. We can say IoT platform is an integrated service which helps to make IoT easier and reasonable for businesses, developers and users. IoT platform provides the “infrastructure”, which we use to create the unique features of the solution.

    The objective of the IoT platform is to provide universal functionality for applications so it can focus on building features that separate the product and add value for customers.

    IoT platform can help to connect sensors and devices. It handles hardware and various software communication protocols. IoT platform provides authentication and security for sensors and users. It collects, visualize, and analyze data which is gathered by the sensor and devices.

    There are many IoT Platforms are available that provides facility to deploy IoT applications.

    – AWS (Amazon Web Services) IoT platform.

    – Google Cloud Platform IoT.

    – IBM Watson IoT platform.

    – Microsoft Azure IoT platform.

    AWS (Amazon Web Services) IoT platform

    In Amazon Web Services, It collects data from connected devices and performs it to real-time actions. It maintains security and gives a set of service that connect too many devices.

    Google Cloud Platform IoT

    In global cloud platform, it provides solutions for IoT devices and applications. It uses Cloud IoT Core to handles a large amount of data for connecting different devices. It allows applying Machine Learning these data. Use of Google Cloud Platform IoT we can speed up IoT devices.

    IBM Watson IoT platform

    In IBM Watson IoT platform, it is constructive for developers to deploy the application and to build IoT solutions rapidly. It provides real-time data exchange, device management, secure communication, and data services.

    Microsoft Azure IoT platform

    In Microsoft Azure IoT platform, it provides scalability, robust security mechanism and accessible to the integration with systems. It has Azure Stream Analytics that measures a large amount of information in real-time achieved by sensors.

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