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    HTML Text Formatting

    Introduction

    HTML Tables are used to organize data so that the user may accurately understand it. With enough data accessible, developers must organize it in such a way that it can be easily comprehended; tables help with this. Data may be organized into rows and columns using HTML tables. They are frequently used to display tabular data such as product listings, customer information, financial reports, and so on.

    They are commonly utilized in research, data analysis, and other applications.

    Uses-

    • The database schema is carefully specified with the aid of tables.
    • It facilitates the comparison of large amounts of data.
    • Tables aid in the orderly display of accessible information and material.
    • Tables are made up of rows and columns and can include text, photos, links, other tables, and so on.

    How to Implement Tags

    The < table> element may be used to construct a table. To build rows inside of the < table> element, use the < tr> elements, and also to produce columns within a row, use the < td> elements. Using the < th> element, you can also specify a cell as a header for a set of table cells.

    Example

    < !DOCTYPE html>
    < html lang="en">
    < head>
    < title>Creating Tables in HTML< /title>
    < /head>
    < body>
    < h2>HTML Table (Default Style)< /h2>
    < table>
    < tr>
    < th>Serial No.< /th>
    < th>Name< /th>
    < th>Age< /th>
    < /tr>
    < tr>
    < td>1< /td>
    < td>Ajeet< /td>
    < td>23< /td>
    < /tr>
    < tr>
    < td>2< /td>
    < td>Rahul< /td>
    < td>25< /td>
    < /tr>
    < tr>
    < td>3< /td>
    < td>Priya< /td>
    < td>30< /td>
    < /tr>
    < /table>
    < /body>
    < /html
    

    Output

    HTML Table

    Serial No Name Age
    1 Ajeet 23
    2 Rahul 25
    3 Priya 30

    Tables have no boundaries by default. To add borders towards the tables, use the CSS border attribute. By default, table cells are only large enough to hold the contents.

    Add pixel border to cells

    Add a 1-pixel border to the table and 5-pixel padding to each of its cells.
    Example

    < !DOCTYPE html>
    < html lang="en">
    < head>
    < title>Adding Borders and Paddings to HTML Tables< /title>
    < style>
    table, th, td {
    border: 1px solid black;
            }
    th, td {
    padding: 10px;
            }
    < /style>
    < /head>
    < body>
    < h2>Insert Separated Borders in Table< /h2>
    < table>
    < tr>
    < th>Serial No.< /th>
    < th>Name< /th>
    < th>Age< /th>
    < /tr>
    < tr>
    < td>1< /td>
    < td>Ajeet< /td>
    < td>23< /td>
    < /tr>
    < tr>
    < td>2< /td>
    < td>Rahul< /td>
    < td>25< /td>
    < /tr>
    < tr>
    < td>3< /td>
    < td>Priya< /td>
    < td>30< /td>
    < /tr>
    
    < /table>
    < /body>
    < /html
    

    Output

    Insert Separated Borders in Table

    Serial No. Name Age
    1 Ajeet 23
    2 Rahul 25
    3 Priya 30

    By default, boundaries surrounding the table and its cells divide them. However, you may combine them by utilizing the border-collapse property on the

    element.Text within the < th> components is also shown in bold font and is placed horizontally centered in the cell by default. The CSS text-align property may be used to adjust the default alignment.The table boundaries are collapsed and the table header text is aligned to the left using the following style rules.Example < !DOCTYPE html> < html lang=”en”> < head> < title>HTML Table with Collapsed Borders< /title> < style> table { border-collapse: collapse; } table, th, td { border: 1px solid black; } th, td { padding: 10px; } th { text-align: left; } < /style> < /head> < body> < h2>Table with Collapsed Borders< /h2> < table> < tr> < th>Serial No.< /th> < th>Name< /th> < th>Age< /th> < /tr> < tr> < td>1< /td> < td>Ajeet< /td> < td>23< /td> < /tr> < tr> < td>2< /td> < td>Rahul< /td> < td>25< /td> < /tr> < tr> < td>3< /td> < td>Priya< /td> < td>30< /td> < /tr> < /table> < /body> < /html OutputTable with Collapsed BordersNote: Most of the < table> element’s attribute such as border, cellpadding, cellspacing, width, align, etc. for styling table appearances in earlier versions has been dropped in HTML5, so avoid using them. Use CSS to style HTML tables instead.Spanning Multiple Rows and ColumnsYou can span table rows and columns across several additional rows and columns.A table cell cannot simply pass into the area below or above another table cell. However, the rowspan and colspan characteristics may be used to span several rows or columns in a table.To see how colspan works in practise, consider the following example:Example < !DOCTYPE html> < html lang=”en”> < head> < title>Span Multiple Columns in an HTML Table< /title> < style> table { width: 300px; border-collapse: collapse; } table, th, td { border: 1px solid black; } th, td { padding: 10px; } < /style> < /head> < body> < h2>Spanning Columns< /h2> < table> < tr> < th>Name< /th> < thcolspan=”2″>Phone< /th> < /tr> < tr> < td>Ajeet< /td> < td>9090909090< /td> < td>8080808080< /td> < /tr> < /table> < /body> < /html OutputSpanning ColumnsColumn and row spanningThe colspan feature is handy for making a cell span across more than one column, while the rowspan attribute is good for making a cell stretch through many more than one row.Example < !DOCTYPE html> < html lang=”en”> < head> < title>Column and row spanning in an HTML Table< /title> < style> table, th, td { border: 1px solid black; border-collapse: collapse; } th, td { padding: 5px; text-align: left; } < /style> < /head> < body> < h2>Column Spanning< /h2> < table style=”width:100%”> < tr> < th>Name< /th> < thcolspan=”2″>Contact< /th> < /tr> < tr> < td>Ajeet< /td> < td>9090909090< /td> < td>8080808080< /td> < /tr> < /table> < h2>Rowspanning< /h2> < table style=”width:100%”> < tr> < th>Name< /th> < td>Ajeet< /td> < /tr> < tr> < throwspan=”2″>Contact< /th> < td>9090909090< /td> < /tr> < tr> < td>8080808080< /td> < /tr> < /table> < /body> < /html> OutputColumn SpanningRow SpanningAdding Captions to TablesThe < caption> element allows you to give a caption (or title) for your tables.The < caption> element must appear immediately after the openingtag. The caption shows at the top of the table by default, but you may adjust its location with the CSS caption-side property.The example below explains how to utilize this element in a table.Example < !DOCTYPE html> < html lang=”en”> < head> < title>Adding a Caption to the HTML Table< /title> < style> table { width: 300px; border-collapse: collapse; } table, th, td { border: 1px solid black; } th, td { padding: 10px; } table.secondary caption { caption-side: bottom; } < /style> < /head> < body> < h2>Table Caption at the Top< /h2> < table> < caption>Users Info< /caption> < tr> < th>Serial No.< /th> < th>Name< /th> < th>Age< /th> < /tr> < tr> < td>1< /td> < td>Ajeet< /td> < td>23< /td> < /tr> < tr> < td>2< /td> < td>Rahul< /td> < td>25< /td> < /tr> < /table> < h2>Table Caption at the Bottom< /h2> < table class=”secondary”> < caption>Users Info< /caption> < tr> < th>Serial No.< /th> < th>Name< /th> < th>Age< /th> < /tr> < tr> < td>1< /td> < td>Ajeet< /td> < td>23< /td> < /tr> < tr> < td>2< /td> < td>Rahul< /td> < td>25< /td> < /tr> < /table> < /body> < /html OutputTable Caption at the Top Student DetailsTable Caption at the Bottom Student DetailsTable Header, Body, and FooterWe can create a table with a header and footer (which remain the same) and a body that contains the primary material. The tags are as follows:

    • < thead> –

      This is used to build the heading.

    • < tbody> –

      This facilitates in the creation of the major body portion.

    • < tfoot> –

      This is used to build the footer.

    Example < !DOCTYPE html> < html lang=”en”> < head> < title>HTML Table with a Header, Footer and Body< /title> < style> table { width: 300px; border-collapse: collapse; } table, th, td { border: 2px solid black; } th, td { padding: 10px; text-align: left; } < /style> < /head> < body> < table border = “1” width = “100%”> < thead> < tr> < td colspan = “4”>This is Header< /td> < /tr> < /thead> < tfoot> < tr> < td colspan = “4”>This is Footer< /td> < /tr> < /tfoot> < tbody> < tr> < td>Data 1< /td> < td>Data 2< /td> < td>Data 3< /td> < td>Data 4< /td> < /tr> < /tbody> < /table> < /body> < /html OutputFAQSQ1. How do you create table in HTML?An HTML table is made up of two tags: an initial < table> tag and a closing < /table> tag. Data is structured into rows and columns inside these tags by using opening and closing table row < tr> tags and opening and closing table data < td> tags. Table row < tr> tags are used to generate a data row.Q2. Is table still used in HTML?Tables should only be used to store tabular data, which looks similar to what you’d find in a spreadsheet or maybe a database. HTML5 modified the regulations, and now, although not encouraged, tables for layout are deemed acceptable HTML.Q3. What is the primary key?A primary key, also known as a primary keyword, is a unique key in a relational database for each entry. It is a one-of-a-kind identifier, such as a driver’s license number, a phone number (with area code), or a vehicle identification number (VIN). A relational database must always include a single primary key.Q4. What is row and column?A row is a horizontal data alignment, whereas a column is vertical. Data in a row identifies a single entity, but data in a column represents a field of information which all entities have. Typically, things in a row face forward, whereas objects in a column are oriented head to tail.

    Serial No. Name Age
    1 Ajeet 23
    2 Rahul 25
    3 Priya 30
    Name Phone
    Ajeet 9090909090 8080808080
    Name Contact
    Ajeet 9090909090 8080808080
    Name Contact
    Ajeet 9090909090 8080808080
    Serial No. Name Age
    1 Ajeet 23
    2 Rahul 25
    Serial No. Name Age
    1 Ajeet 23
    2 Rahul 25

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