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    C Programming Introduction

    C language is the most popular programming language and is widely used for development purposes in the world. This language was mainly developed to write an operating system which is known as UNIX.

    This operating system is completely written in the C language. The Linux operating system, Relation Database Management System, and MySQL have been written in the C programming language.

    The programs in C language can be written in two or more files with a .c extension. If any user writes the program in C language, then the user needs to compile the program to execute it. The C compiler converts the code of the particular program into the machine understandable language.

    This converted language is known as machine language or binary language. So, the user must make sure that the C compiler is available in the computer system before proceeding with the C programming language.

    C Programming Introduction

    The C language comes with all the flavors of UNIX and LINUX operating system. If any user wants to know the system’s compiler, then the user can ask the system administrator or take help from someone to categorize the available C compiler at the current system. The code produces by the C language executes faster than the code written in assembly language.

    Why C is Mother Language?

    C is known as the mother language of all programming languages, widely used in the entire world. Various programming languages are derived from the concept of C programming by direct or indirect way.

    The C language is the mother language because mostly compiler and JVMs are written in this language. It introduces the user to several kinds of new core concepts such as arrays, functions, file handling etc.

    We cannot interact directly with the hardware machine of the computer system. If the user wants to interact with the hardware directly, then the user needs a system application.

    The system software is developed by using C language, and this software can directly interact with the hardware of any device like drivers and kernels. The compilers in C language are always available to the majority of computer architectures and operating systems as per the user’s requirement.

    It is the structured language that breaks the code or program into small portions and solves those parts individually. The structured way of programming is the subset of procedural programming language and is also known as modular programming. We can use the top-down model with the help of structure programming only.

    Middle-Level Programming language

    The C programming language is the middle-level language because it binds the gap between Machine level language and high-level language. We can use C language for both system programming and application programming.

    The level of any language typically refers to the degree of abstraction from that particular platform where the code will be executed. The user must understand the CPU architecture in terms of register, instruction set, and system memory layout in a low-level language.

    Use of C language

    The C programming language is used to develop the system application, which forms the major part of any operating system such as Windows, UNIX, and Linux. The operating systems, C compilers, and UNIX application programs are mainly written in this language.

    There are several fields of computer science where the C programming language is used for development purposes. These fields are as follows:

    • The designing procedure of any operating system required the C programming language.
    • C programming is also used to design the language compiler.
    • We can use this language in Assemblers to make our work easier.
    • C language is required in the Utility software for the development.
    • This language is highly portable, which is used in Network Drivers.
    • The C programming language is used to Design the Database, and language interpreters to translate the code.
    • The basic C language is also used in text editors and print Spoolers for various purposes.
    • This programming language is mainly used for the coding of modern programs of trending techniques.
    First Program In C

    Before starting the basics of a particular language, the user should learn how to write, compile, and execute the first program. We need to open the C console to write the first program in C language by using the given code:

    #include< stdio.h>

    int main ()

    {

    Printf (“Hello C learning”);

    return 0;

    }

    Explanation:

    In the above program, #include< stdio.h> contains standard input-output library functions and the printf () is defined within the studio.h. The main () represents the entry point of any particular program in C programming language, and the printf () is mainly used to print the data on the console. The return statement returns the running status to the operating system. We use 0 value to the successful execution of the program, and 1 is used to the unsuccessful program execution.

    • C program structure

      The structure of the C program is fixed if we use any other structure, then the compilation error is generated, and we never execute our program. The structure of the C program is as follows:

    • #include< stdio.h> Header
      int main (){ Main function
      int x = 90; Variable declaration
      Printf (“%d”, x); Body
      return 0;} Return
    • Header files in the program

      The header file is the first component of the C program, which is used with the .h extension that contains the declaration of C function and macro definitions to share in between various source files. Some important header files and their use are given below:

      • stddef.h

        It defines various useful types and macros.

      • stdint.h

        This header file is mainly used to define the several integer types with the exact width.

      • stdio.h

        The Studio.h header file can define the core input-output functions in C programs.

      • stdlib. h

        This header file defines numeric conversation functions, Pseudo-random network, and memory allocation in a particular language.

      • string.h

        The string. h header file is used to handle the string functions in the program.

      • math. h

        This header file is used to define the common mathematical function in the program within the particular language.

    Syntax to include the header file in the particular program within the C programming language:

    #include

    • Declaration of the main method

      The declaration of the main method is another part of the particular program in the C programming language. The syntax to declare the main method in the program is given below:

      int main ()

      {

      ………………Statement

      }

    • Declaration of variables

      After the declaration of the main method used needs to declare the variables inside that block. The variable declaration method refers to those used in the function inside the code or program.

      No variable exists in the C language without a declaration process in the code. The user needs to make sure that variables should be declared before any particular operation in the function inside the main method of the program.

      Example:

      int main ()

      {

      int x;

      }

    • Body of the program

      The body is the C program’s function, which refers to the operation performed inside the function. This function can be anything like searching function, sorting function, printing, and manipulations etc.

      Example:

      int main ()

      {

      Int x;

      Printf (“%d”, x);

      }

    • Program Return Statement

      The return statement is the last step of the particular program in the C programming language. This return statement refers to returning the value from the function. This return value and statement is depending upon the return type.

      Example:

      int main ()

      {

      Int x;

      Printf (“%d”, x);

      return 0;

      }

    • Basic Program

      #include < stdio.h>

      int main(void)

      {

      printf (“Ram is a good boy”);

      return 0;

      }

    • Output: Ram is a good boy

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