History of Android
In today’s world, Android smartphones are very important to a large portion of cell phone users. The population has now entered a digital sphere as a result of the economic instability of the COVID-19 eras. During these transformational times, Android is the most common mobile operating system. But when did anything like an android come into being, and how did it choose its path of development? How should we have been armed if we hadn’t known Mother Earth was going on a social distancing strike in 2020? Let’s get directly to the point and respond to each question!
When did it all start?
The Android story starts in Palo Alto, California, in 2003, when Usable, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris Waves pre Android Inc. However, the firm was later forced to close due to a lack of funding, which led to the involvement of Google. In 2005, Google sensed the product’s promise and signed a $50 million contract to buy it. The four Co-founders quickly relocated to the Googleplex, where they will continue to grow the OS under their new owners. On November 5, 2007, the first available Android Beta Version 1.0 was released.
Android Version 1 Series
Android 1.0 (API 1) and 1.1 (API 2)
On September 23rd, 2008, Android 1.0 (API 1) was released. It’s a feature of the HTC Dream smartphone. As a result, it was the first Android computer. Google Maps, YouTube, an HTML browser, Gmail, a webcam, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and several more applications were available. The inclusion of a Play Store (now Play Store) which users could import and upgrade Android apps in addition to what was already pre-installed was a remarkable feature at the period. Google launched the Android 1.1 update for HTC Dreaming a few months later, in February 2009. It was decided to make it more stable and user-friendly this time. This version had four main enhancements:
- Email attachments should be saved.
- Longer in-call screen timeout by default when using the speakerphone, as well as the option to change the dial pad
- The machine layouts now have support for a marquee.
Android 1.5 Cupcake
This was the first Galaxy Note phone to include Google’s pastry naming scheme, and it was launched in early June 2009. It was launched with a number of features that we all take for granted. These changes included new functionality and improvements to those already available in previous releases, such as auto-rotation, third-party keyboard support, widget support, video capturing, browser copy-paste, the ability to post videos to YouTube, and checking phone use history, among other things.
Android 1.6 Donut
Donut was released only a few months later, in September 2009. One of its most notable features was the incorporation of CDMA-based networks, which enabled it to be supported by carriers all over the world. Previously, only GSM innovations were used. Support for devices with various screen sizes, convenient search boxes and bookmarks on web browsers, fuller integration of Gallery, Camera, and Camcorder with quicker camera access, extension of the Gesture interface, text-to-speech, and other important enhancements were also included with this update.
Android Version 2
Android 2.0 (API 5), 2.0.1 (API 6), and 2.1 (API 7) aka Éclair
Version 2.0 was released in October 2009, about a year after Version 1 was released. The inclusion of a smarter dictionary for virtual keyboards that learned through word usages, support for adding multiple accounts in one device, display of live wallpapers, a lock screen with drag and drop unlocking functionality, additions to camera services such as Flash and digital zoom, and the inclusion of navigation in Google Maps with voice guidance were all highlights of this update.2.0.1 and 2.1 were launched three months after 2.0, in December 2009 and January 2010, respectively. The majority of these updates dealt with small API changes and bug fixes.
Android 2.2 Froyo
Froyo is a variation of the words “frozen yoghurt” and “frozen yoghurt.” In May of 2010, this version was released. Wi-Fi mobile hotspot support, push alerts from Android Cloud to System Messaging, enhanced device security via PIN/ Password authentication, Adobe Flash support, USB tethering capability, upgrade in Android Market application with automatic update of applications features, support for Bluetooth powered vehicle, and so on were some of its most notable features. The other versions, 2.2.1, 2.2.2, and 2.2.3, were all released in 2011 and included bug fixes and other security changes. The most recent version, 2.2.3, was released in November 2011.
Android 2.3 Gingerbread
Much before the later models of Froyo, Gingerbread made significant updates to the look and sound of smartphones. The Nexus S, which was co-developed by Google and Samsung, was the first phone to use this version. The user interface architecture has been revised in this version to add more functionality and speed. Extra-large screen sizes and resolutions are also supported. Other notable features include NFC support, an upgraded keyboard, enhanced support for multi-touch activities, various cameras on the computer, including a front-facing camera, and enhanced copy/paste capability. In December 2010 and January 2011, versions 2.3.1 and 2.3.2 were released, respectively.
Android Version 2.3.3 and further in the series Gingerbread (API 10).
In February 2011, version 2.3.3 was released, which included several API enhancements and bug fixes. In April of the same year, Google Talk voice and video chat was added to version 2.3.4. The default SSL encryption was modified from AES256-SHA to RC4-MD5 in this update. 2.3.5 and 2.3.6 were released in July and September 2011, respectively, with a variety of bug fixes and enhancements. In September 2011, Google wallet support for the Nexus S 4G was added to version 2.3.7.
Android Version 3
Android 3.0 Honeycomb
Android 3.0 Honeycomb was launched in February 2011 and was designed to work exclusively on tablets and phones with larger displays. It had features that could not be seen on phones with smaller screens. The most valuable feature of this version was the use of interactive buttons for executing the start, return, and menu functions, rather than the use of actual buttons. This version was initially released in conjunction with the Motorola Xoom Tablet. Other UI improvements included the addition of a System Bar, which provided faster access to alerts and status at the bottom. At the top of the page, an Action Bar provided access to contextual options, navigation, widgets, and other forms of information. Switching between tasks/applications was also made simpler in this update. Another important feature was the option to encrypt all user information.
Android 3.1 Honeycomb
Many other UI improvements were made in this update, which was released in May 2011. Support for joysticks, gamepads, external keyboards, and pointing systems was the most notable feature. It also had stronger USB accessory compatibility.
Android 3.2 Honeycomb
The July 2011 release of version 3.2 mostly enhanced hardware support and expanded the ability of different programmes to access files on the SD card. Few display support features were also improved in this update to allow for more accurate monitoring of display variations on various Android devices.
3.2.1, released in September 2011, included a number of bug fixes as well as minor protection, Wi-Fi, and reliability enhancements. Google Books, Adobe Flash, and Android Market all received updates as well.
3.2.2 and 3.2.3 were released on August 30, 2011, and 3.2.5 was released in January 2012. Bug fixes and other slight updates for the Motorola Xoom and Motorola Xoom 4G became the focus of both of them. The Pay As You Go option for 3G and 4G tablets was launched in the 3.2.4 update in December 2011. The most recent update of this set, 3.2.6, released in February 2012, solved data connectivity problems on the US 4G Motorola Xoom when the Airplane mode was disabled.
Android Version 4
Android 4.0 Ice-cream Sandwich
In October of 2011, Google launched Android 4.0. It had a variety of elements from both the Honeycomb and Gingerbread versions. With 4.0, the Face Unlock option for smartphones was launched for the first time. Other notable features included the ability to monitor cell data and Wi-Fi use, the ability to deny alerts, window windows, or even activities utilising sliding motions, the inclusion of screenshot capturing using the Power and Volume buttons, real-time speech to text dictation, the ability to use some applications without having to open, pre-fed text replies to calls, and several more.Another significant feature that vastly improved interface usability for the visually impaired was a new explore-by-touch mode, which enabled users to move around the screen using audible input. It was no longer enough to look at the device’s screen. This edition has a number of advanced camera features, including the Panorama mode. Live effects were also added to the video recording process. This update also included a new Wi-Fi peer-to-peer technology that allows users to communicate directly to nearby peer devices over Wi-Fi without the need for the internet or tethering. Certain smartphones received small bug fixes in Android 4.0.1 and 4.0.2, which were released in October and November 2011.
Android 4.0.3 and 4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich
Databases, Bluetooth, graphics, webcam, and Calendar provider all received bug fixes, optimizations, and improvements in version 4.0.3, which was released in December 2011. Minor enhancements, such as improved camera stability and smoother screen rotation, were also included in version 4.0.4, which was released in March 2012.
Android 4.1 (API 16), 4.2 (API 17), and 4.3 (API 18) Jelly Bean
Android 4.1 was the first Jelly Bean release, and it was also the fastest and smoothest at the time. Bi-directional text (left to right or right to left scripts) and support for a variety of other foreign languages were added to this version, which improved compatibility and provided assistance to international users. The updates will be extended from this update onwards, displaying a wider range of content, presenting options for different acts, and so on. Keyboard maps that can be installed by the user were also added. Shortcuts and widgets may be rearranged or resized dynamically to match new products on home screens.
In November of 2013, version 4.2 was released. This version was cleaner, quicker, and more sensitive. This was the first version to have the “one tablet, several users” feature, which allowed several users to share a laptop while maintaining a separate system environment for each user’s data. Widget support, Daydream, an active picture viewer mode that starts while a user’s device is stowed or charging, animation usability, which allows users to represent a window for their app’s content on a specific external display, Wi-Fi Display, which allows users to connect to an external display over Wi-Fi on supported devices, and full native support were among the other notable additions.
Version 4.3, launched in July 2013, improved on the consistency enhancements made in previous Jelly Bean models. which gave games and other applications on compatible platforms the highest-performance 2D and 3D graphics capabilities. The multi-user function for tablets was expanded with this version, making it much easier to handle users and their functionality on a single platform. Another highlight of this update is the ability for users to observe the stream of messages with the user’s consent and then view them in whatever manner they want.
Android 4.4 KitKat
The blue accents used in Ice Cream Sandwich and Jelly Bean have become whiter, and many storage apps had lighter color schemes. Android 4.4 KitKat was released in 2013 and had many distinct features. A user could use the ‘Ok Google’ command to access Google at any time and on phones with a limited RAM memory of 512MB. The phone app will priorities the user’s contacts based on the most commonly called numbers. In this update, Google Hangouts was launched, which allowed users to keep all of their SMS and MMS messages in one app. Emoji has now been added to Google Keyboard.
Android Version 5
Android 5.0 Lollipop
The Nexus 6 was the first smartphone to run Android 5.0, which was released in November 2014. It was the first to use Google’s “Material Design” philosophy, which resulted in significant UI design advancements, such as the introduction of Vector drawable, which could be scaled permanently without losing definition. Other notable features included the displacement of VM Dalvik with Android Runtime, which significantly increased app speed and usability by pre-loading some of the processing power for apps before they were opened. Android TV support was included, resulting in a full TV network for every app’s huge struggle.
The navigation bar has been redesigned to be more visible, open, and customizable. The A/V sync was noticeably improved. In this release, some new concepts were introduced, such as ‘File apps,’ which allowed users to take advantage of concurrent documentation to provide them with instant access to their information, and ‘Android in the workplace,’ which allowed apps in the launcher to display a Work badge over their icon, indicating that the app and its data are controlled in the working environment.
Android 5.1 Lollipop
This Android version was released in March of 2015. Official support for multiple SIM cards, a Mobile security scheme that locks the device in the event of burglary or misplacement before the user logs into their Google account, and the inclusion of High-definition voice calls between compatible 4G LTE devices were among the highlights of the announcement.
Android Version 6.0 Marshmallow
Android Marshmallow was released in October 2015, and it included notable features such as biometric fingerprint unlocking and USB type C support, as well as Doze mode, which reduced CPU speed when the display was turned off to improve battery life, a search bar for quick access to apps and the ability to mark them as favorites, Android Pay, and more.
Android Version 7
Android 7.0 Nougat
Google launched Android 7.0 Nougat in August 2016. It implemented enhanced multitasking capabilities, especially for devices with larger displays, such as the split-screen mode and the ability to switch between applications quickly. The introduction of the Daydream virtual-reality platform and the expansion of the “Doze now” mode were both notable features. More features include rearranging the Quick Setting tiles for quicker entry, replying to conversations via notifications, keeping up with all notifications from a single app at once via bundled notifications, and reducing device data use with Power Saver Often included was the ability to adjust the size of the text and symbols on the computer panel. Google Now has been phased out in favour of Google Assistant. The Google Pixel, Pixel XL, and LG V20 were the first phones to get this update.
Android 7.1, 7.1.1 and 7.1.2 Nougat
However, one intriguing design concept depicted in 7.1 was the Circular app icon support, which was launched in October 2016. Android 7.1 brought massive improvements and enhancements to current functionality and those added in 7.0, but one interesting design idea presented in 7.1 was the Circular app icon support.
In version 7.1.1, which was released in December 2016, a new collection of emojis with various skin tones and haircuts were added to the current ones. Furthermore, GIFs can now be sent directly from the default keyboard. Battery consumption warnings were introduced in version 7.1.2, which was released in April 2017.
Android Version 8
Android 8.0 Oreo
This update was released in August 2017 and had a number of notable updates to the previous versions. According to Google, it turned out to be a more efficient and quicker version, with a 2x boot speed compared to Nougat when tested on Pixel smartphones. This update was also smarter, as shown by the addition of features like Autofill, picture-in-picture mode and Notification dots, which enabled users to easily catch up on newer content. This upgrade further improved protection by introducing Google Play Protect, which meant that the smartphone and its data were protected from malicious applications. Apart from that, graphic specifics were prioritized, such as the blob format for emojis being replaced by emojis that were compatible with other platforms, and Quick Settings and Settings being significantly revamped.
Android 8.1.0 Oreo
Android 8.1, which was launched in December 2017, added a number of new features for both consumers and developers. The launch of Go Edition, which included configurations for Memory optimizations, Flexible targeting options and Google Play Services, was the most important for users. The Neural Networks API, Shared Memory API, and Wallpaper Colors API have also been introduced as new APIs for developers.
Android Version 9 Pie
Android 9 was released in August of this year. It significantly improved the visual component and made excellent use of artificial intelligence’s capabilities. The replacement of traditional navigation keys with such an extended button in the middle that acted as the new power button, grabbing which up offered a rundown of currently used apps, a search bar, and five request recommendations, and swiping which up offered an outline of newly used apps, a search bar, and five request suggestions were the most prominent. The battery life was improved, and ‘Shush ‘was added, which automatically puts the phone in ‘Do not Disturb’ mode when placed face down, as well as adaptive Brightness and Battery capability. The ability to view screen time information was added to get a clearer understanding of how much and for what reasons the phone system was used.
Android Version 10
With the release of Android 10 in September 2019, Google announced a rebranding of the operating system, abandoning the previous iterations’ sweets-name-based naming scheme. This version introduced a new logo as well as a new color scheme. Live subtitles for all media, smarter text replies, ‘Imposed. as a result,’ to block out disruptions by temporarily pausing those apps, replacing of navigation buttons with gestures, availability of dark mode at the system level, provision for further control about permissions for applications, and the implementation of support for premium phones with flexible displays, and the ability to monitor a device’s position, set screen time limits, and improve parental control of children’s content were built in.
Android Version 11
On the 8th of September 2020, Android 11 was announced. The tagline for this edition is “The OS that gets to what’s relevant,” which is pretty much justified. Android 11 adds the ability to manage messages through various chat platforms in one location, as well as the ability to digitally priorities people with whom you’re conversing and display the most relevant conversations at the top and on the lock screen. Another standout feature is the chat bubbles which enable users to pin conversations from different messaging applications to their screens so they are still visible. Finally, a built-in screen recording capability has been included, which eliminates the need to use an additional programmer to monitor the screen. The smart reply capabilities as well as the voice access functionality have been improved. Another intriguing aspect is the System Management capability, which helps you to control all of your connected devices from one location. Google Play protection has also been significantly revised. Android has released 11 big versions to date, and each new version aims to improve the OS. Let us ponder about what newer capabilities an OS might unleash before the next update.
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